Operations information systems were introduced after transaction-processing systems. An operations information system gathers comprehensive data, organizes it and summarizes it in a form that is useful for managers. These types of systems access data from a transaction-processing system and organize it into a usable form. Managers use operations information systems to obtain sales, inventory, accounting and other performance-related information.
In these types of systems, all accounting reports are shared by all levels of accounting managers.
Computer Based Information System Information Technology Essay
The financial management information system provides financial information to all financial managers within an organization including the chief financial officer. The chief financial officer analyzes historical and current financial activity; projects future financial needs, and monitors and controls the use of funds over time using the information developed by the MIS department. A manufacturing management information system provides manufacturing information to the different levels of management regarding inventory levels, production processes, rejections etc.
A marketing management information system supports managerial activity in the area of product development, distribution, pricing decisions, promotional effectiveness, and sales forecasting. Human resources management information systems are concerned with activities related to workers, managers, and other individuals employed by the organization. Because the personnel function relates to all other areas in business, the human resources management information system plays a valuable role in ensuring organizational success.
Activities performed by the human resources management information systems include, work-force analysis and planning, hiring, training, and job assignments. A DSS is an interactive computer system that can be used by managers without help from computer specialists.
Dialog Generation and Management System DGMS which provides a user-friendly interface between the system and the managers who do not have extensive computer training. Expert systems and artificial intelligence use human knowledge captured in a computer to solve problems that ordinarily need human expertise.
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Mimicking human expertise and intelligence requires the computer to do the following: recognize, formulate and solve a problem; explain solutions; and learn from experience. These systems explain the logic of their advice to the user; hence, in addition to solving problems they also can serve as a teacher. They use flexible thinking processes and can accommodate new knowledge. The need for a system often exists but it is not acted upon until the conditions become intolerable. For example need for information system in a manufacturing organization is because of excessive inventories, high production costs, poor delivery performance, large number of rejections etc.
After establishing the need of the system, next step is to conduct a feasibility study. The feasibility study is undertaken to know the usefulness of the system to the organization. Technical and economical feasibility of the proposed system is carried out. Technical feasibility considers things such as development of hardware and software capable of meeting the needs of the proposed system.
Economic feasibility considers things such as evaluation of costs and returns to know whether the returns justify the investment in the system. After conducting the feasibility study, the next step is to take approval from the top management for development of the proposed system.
Analysis is a detailed study of various operations of a system, along with its boundaries. This step involved detailed study of the information needs of the organization and its end users, existing and expecting information systems.
System design refers to the technical specifications that will be implied in constructing the system. The next step after design is the construction and testing of the system. The construction involves physical creation of the system. The system analyst test the system to check its working as per the expectations or not. He corrects the flaws in the system if any.
Implementation is the most crucial phase of the development process because this step is very important in assuring the success of any new developed system. This step involves hardware and software acquisition, site preparation, user training and installation of the system. After the system has been operating smoothly for a short period of time, an evaluation of each step in the design and of the final system performance is made. This is a feedback about the system. The last step is the maintenance of the installed system. It involves the monitoring, evaluating and modifying a system to make necessary improvements.
The maintenance of the system is done to reduce the errors due to design, or environmental changes. The overall purpose of MIS is to provide profitability and related information to help managers and staff understands business performance and plans its future direction. MIS is always management oriented and keeps in view every level of management and gets the desired information. MIS is useful for planning as every organization makes log-term and short-term plans with the help of information like sales and production, capital investments, stocks etc.
Effective MIS helps the management to know deviations of actual performance from preset targets and control things. MIS adds to the intelligence, alertness, and awareness of managers by providing them information in the form of progress and review reports of an on-going activity. It facilitates planning i. MIS helps in measuring performance and making necessary changes in the organizational plans and procedures.
It brings co-ordination i. It makes control easier i. It improves the ability of management to evaluate and improve performance. Though management information systems are becoming increasing beneficial, there are certain limitations to these systems:. List and describes the six reasons why information system are so important for business today? They can do this by continuously having the correct quantity of stock in store so customers can always get want they want. S systems play a chief role for businesses in making new products and services. New business models can be generated and these can define how a company produce, create and sell their products.
S systems make it conceivable for managers to use real time data when making a decision to therefore make better decisions and not have to waste time looking for information.
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S they will normally create a competitive advantage over their competitors. I'm Amanda. Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?