Post-independence, due importance was given to harnessing the power of water by way of controlling and storing of water through large Dams. That was the need of the hour. However, our cities and towns have subsequently grown without planning for water need vs water availability. In , the per capita water availability was about m3. The water scarcity is mostly man made due to excess population growth and mismanagement of water resources. Some of the major reasons for water scarcity are:.
The problem has been compounded with increased concretization due to urban development that has choked ground water resources. Water is neither being recharged nor stored in ways that optimizes its use while retaining the natural ingredients of water. In addition, the entry of sewage and industrial waste into water bodies is severely shrinking the availability of potable water. Marine life is mostly lost in these areas already. This is the genesis of a very serious emerging crisis.
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Write a speech on importance of water in Punjabi language' - Answers
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As a result, electricity consumption by farmers has also increased steadily over the years, as more and more energy is required to pump water from ever-deeper depths. The potential effects of groundwater depletion include the drying up of wells, reduced stream flows, deteriorating water quality and sinking land as well as increased costs and lower profit margins for farmers. In Punjab, smaller farmers are the first to suffer; as production costs rise, many are forced to take on debts they cannot hope to repay.
As a result, the once prosperous farmers of Punjab increasingly struggle. In the first phase, through a structured field test the research team attempted to identify one or more technologies or practices that save water in rice cultivation. In the second phase, the project team developed and is pursuing a strategy to rapidly recruit farmers to scale up the application of the tensiometer, the most successful of the approaches tested in the first phase.
Such contracts are designed to grow farmer income without increasing crop risk, while providing corporate partners with higher value crops such as vegetables and corn. Of the approaches tested in the first phase of the project, the tensiometer , a tool used to measure the moisture content of the soil, quickly emerged as the most successful an easily adopted approach to save water in rice cropping. Tensiometer technology dates from the early years of the 20th century.
The device typically consists of a sealed, water-filled tube with a ceramic porous cup and a vacuum gauge at the top; the device is designed to provide an estimate of soil moisture. As soil moisture decreases, the water level in the tube goes down.
If the indicated soil moisture is lower than the desired level for a crop, the farmer needs to water. By taking the guesswork out of irrigation, the device allows farmers to water only when needed, thus saving water and promoting better crop health. To address this problem, several years ago Dr.