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Philippines still does not allow divorce. The laws pertaining to the situation of children born outside marriage have also been revised in many countries see Legitimacy family law. Family medicine is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; it is based on knowledge of the patient in the context of the family and the community, emphasizing disease prevention and health promotion.
Maternal mortality or maternal death is defined by WHO as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.
In recent decades, advances in healthcare have resulted in rates of maternal mortality having dropped dramatically, especially in Western countries. Maternal mortality however remains a serious problem in many African and Asian counties. Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. Child mortality is the death of a child before the child's fifth birthday. Like maternal mortality, infant and child mortality were common throughout history, but have decreased significantly in modern times.
Family policies differ significantly between countries. Depending on jurisdiction, family policy may have a multiplicity of functions: horizontal redistribution, the enhancement of individual choices, increasing fertility rates, supporting economic growth and productivity, as well as reducing gender inequalities Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser From an economic perspective, employment-oriented family policy is part of an overall redesign of welfare states geared to foster "active citizenship", also among mothers who were formerly not employed, through the development of an "enabling state".
More generous family policies are said to lead to higher employment rates for women, mitigate the risk of unemployment for mothers after a substantial period of leave, support a social investment strategy, and offset some of the costs of raising children. From many feminist perspectives, family policies should aim at equalising opportunities between men and women through de-familialising care, encouraging men's involvement in care work, and facilitating employment opportunities for women.
Profound social, economic, and cultural changes have led in many societies to the decline of the "male breadwinner model" and the move towards a variety of "adult worker models" Daly Nevertheless, family policy expansion has not always fundamentally challenged gender inequalities: overall men have not increased their contribution to care work sufficiently to "compensate" for women's increased labour force participation and slightly reduced participation in care. In an era of perceived permanent austerity and overall welfare state retrenchment, rich OECD countries have not been prevented from expanding family policies Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser Although at the institutional policy level, the expansion of family policy might be characterised as a "silent revolution", relevant for gender equality, a cautious interpretation might be necessary: gender inequalities in income, opportunities, leisure and other significant outcomes remain and are sometimes sustained by policy, even if there is an observed shift in their character towards support for women's employment Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser The policy shift has been particularly significant in countries that had previously emphasised more conservative approaches to family policies, such as Germany, Ireland, Japan, and Norway.
Hence, it can no longer be assumed that in the majority of rich OECD countries care for young children will be mainly provided through unpaid work within the family. Nevertheless, a certain number of countries still fail to provide adequate childcare arrangements, constituting a barrier for full-time maternal employment.
Furthermore, in some countries, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, gender discrimination continues to strongly intersect with class; high childcare costs constitute a disincentive to labour force participation, especially among less educated and unskilled women Esping-Andersen This means that higher-class and more educated women tend to have better opportunities than women belonging to a lower social class. Partisanship and women's political agency have been the main drivers for family policy change during the s and s in many countries.
For the s, however, the importance of these drivers has significantly declined. As societal preferences have undergone profound changes—to some extent driven by the activities of women's equality movements, as well as by the experience of women's employment—the policy preferences of voters have also changed. Electorates in western democracies increasingly want policies supporting "modern" family lifestyles which depend on women's employment Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser As political parties react to these changed policy preferences, the traditional differences in family policy positions between political parties decline.
The extent to which this translates into support for gender equality, and how such equality might be defined, is as yet not decided. However, societal policy preferences, long believed to be set in stone, are undergoing profound changes; and public opinion increasingly matters for changing policies.
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The changed policy preferences are also mirrored in new political discourses that prioritise social investment and the preservation of the human capital of women, especially of those who are highly skilled. The expansion of family policies geared to supporting women's employment and investment in children is very likely to continue in western democracies. Ferragina and Seeleib-Kaiser While in many parts of the world family policies seek to promote a gender-equal organization of the family life, in others the male-dominated family continues to be the official policy of the authorities, which is also supported by law.
For instance, the Civil Code of Iran states at Article "In relations between husband and wife; the position of the head of the family is the exclusive right of the husband". In some parts of the world, some governments promote a specific form of family, such as that based on traditional family values.
The term "family values" is often used in political discourse in some countries, its general meaning being that of traditional or cultural values that pertain to the family's structure, function, roles, beliefs, attitudes, and ideals, usually involving the "traditional family"—a middle-class family with a breadwinner father and a homemaker mother, raising their biological children. Any deviation from this family model is considered a "nontraditional family".
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Some jurisdictions outlaw practices which they deem as socially or religiously unacceptable, such as fornication , cohabitation or adultery. It includes issues relating to the way how work and families intersect and influence each other. At a political level, it is reflected through policies such maternity leave and paternity leave.
Since the s, social scientists as well as feminists have increasingly criticized gendered arrangements of work and care, and the male breadwinner role, and policies are increasingly targeting men as fathers, as a tool of changing gender relations. Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides a right to respect for one's "private and family life, his home and his correspondence ", subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society".
Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence.
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There shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and freedoms of others. Certain social scientists have advocated the abolition of the family. An early opponent of the family was Socrates whose position was outlined by Plato in The Republic.
The family being such a deep-rooted and much-venerated institution, few intellectuals have ventured to speak against it. The Russian-American rationalist and individualist philosopher, novelist and playwright Ayn Rand compared partiality towards consanguinity with racism , as a small-scale manifestation of the latter. It places the accident of birth above a man's values and duty to the tribe above a man's right to his own life. Its very etymology accuses it of servility and stagnation. Not only Victorian ; wherever the family has been strong, it has always been an engine of tyranny.
Weak members or weak neighbours: it is the mob spirit crushing genius , or overwhelming opposition by brute arithmetic. One of the controversies regarding the family is the application of the concept of social justice to the private sphere of family relations, in particular with regard to the rights of women and children. Throughout much of the history, most philosophers who advocated for social justice focused on the public political arena, not on the family structures; with the family often being seen as a separate entity which needed to be protected from outside state intrusion.
One notable exception was John Stuart Mill , who, in his work The Subjection of Women , advocated for greater rights for women within marriage and family. In the context of the feminist movement of the s and s, this was a challenge to the nuclear family and family values , as they were understood then. In , Nicholas Eberstadt, political economist at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, described a "global flight from family" in an opinion piece in the Wall Street Journal.
Europe has seen a surge in child-free adults. One in five something women are childless in Sweden and in Switzerland, in Italy one in four, in Berlin one in three. So-called traditional societies are seeing the same trend.
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However, Swedish statisticians reported in that, in contrast to many countries, since the s, fewer children have experienced their parents' separation, childlessness had decreased in Sweden and marriages had increased. It had also become more common for couples to have a third child suggesting that the nuclear family was no longer in decline in Sweden.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the group of related people. For the taxonomic rank, see Family biology. For other uses, see Family disambiguation. For other uses, see Grandson disambiguation. Two parents and a child: the statue Family in the garden of the Palace of Nations , Geneva , Switzerland. Basic concepts. Case studies. Chambri Mosuo. Major theorists. Morgan Stephen O. Murray Michelle Rosaldo David M. Schneider Marilyn Strathern. Related articles.
Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship.